Monday, March 29, 2010

Mizoram Budget Bihchianna

¢ Lalremruata Renthlei

Mizoram chief minister, finance minister ni bawk Lal Thanhawla chuan 2010-2011 atana Mizoram Budget Rs 3577.91 crore leh sorkar kum kal laia Supplementary Demand Rs 642.8 crore chu March ni 19-ah House-ah a pharh.

Chief minister budget pharhah hian tax lak tharna tur sawilan a ni lo a, mahse, motor vehicle-a tax lak chungchang erawh tihsan tum a nih thu a sawi a, a rang lama tih a nih tur thu a sawi nghe nghe.

Chief minister chuan fiscal thara budget thar pharh rualin 2.62 crore closing balance a awm thu a sawi a, hei hi account hrang hranga surplus a awm vang niin a sawi.

Budget sawifiahnan chief minister chuan darkar 1: 35 a hmang a, a bikin New Land Use Policy (NLUP) chu sawilangin, sorkar flagship programme a nih thu sawiin, mipuite tana ei leh bara intodelhna tur niin a sawi.

CM chuan Sixth Pay Commission rawtna zulzuia sorkar hnathawk hlawh siamrem tum a nih thu sawiin, "Sixth pay revision vangin sum hmanna tur sang tur chu kawng tin rengah sum hmanna lama kan fimkhur a ngai dawn a, sum hmanna tam takah kan tih tlem a ngai dawn a ni," a ti.

Mizoram economy chu thang tura ngaih a nih thu sawiin, ""Economy thanna chu 7.2% ni turah ngaih a ni a, 2008-09 khan 7%-a thang angin kan ngai a ni," a ti.

Lal Thanhawla chuan service sector chuan Gross State Doemestic Product-ah hmun chungnung ber an la chan thu a tarlang a, Service sector-in 66% an thawh a, Industrial Sector chuan 19.5% thawhin, Agriculture chuan 14.5 % an thawh tih a sawi.

Chief minister chuan, "Sector pathumte rual zawka a kal theihnan sorkar chuan Industries leh Agriculture sector-ah a invest tam ang," a ti.

Lal Thanhawla chuan regular budget a present chu plan outlay 1250 crore hisap a siam a ni a, a chhan chu Planning Commission-in State Annual Plan 2010-2011 atan thutlukna a la siam loh vang a nih thu a sawi.

Finance minister chuan hlawh chungchanga sum sen tamna tur chungchang tarlangin 2010-11-ah salary expenditure sanna chu 10% vela sang chho tura chhut a nih thu a sawi.

Non-Plan hnuaia salary expenditure chu Rs 1136.89 crore leh Plan hnuaiah Rs 227.94 crore ni tura ngaih niin, a belhkhawma salary atana sum hman tur chu Rs 1364.83 crore lai a ni.

Pension chungchang pawh sawiin, 2008-09-a pension atana sum hman chu Rs 126.05 croe a nih thu leh 2009-10-ah Rs 163.11 lai niin, 2010-11-ah phei chuan Sixth Pay revision avangin Rs 205.40 crore a kai lawih tur thu a sawi. Chief Minister chuan pension chungchanga kalphung fel zawk a awm theihnan New Defined Contributory Pension Scheme siam tum a nih thu a sawi bawk.

Budget Speech-ah hian chief minister chuan Bru Refugees chunchang pawh sawi langin, 2009 November ni 16 khan Bru laklet leh tumna a awm tawh thu leh, mahse, beisei ang lova thil a kal vanga chhunzawm theih a nih loh thu a sawi. Sorkar chuan tha ber tura a ngaih angin hma a la ang, a ti.

Annual Plan 2010-2011
Tuna kan Annual plan size chu Rs 1250 crore a ni a, Planning Commission lamin 250 crore min dahbelhsak hnuah a vaiin 1250 crore a ni ta a, mahse, 250 crore erawh hi chu Assembly Session koh leh huna pass phawt hnua hman theih chauh tur a ni.

(i) Agriculture & Allied Activities - Rs. 59.46 crore, (ii) Rural Development - Rs. 48 crore, (iii) Special Areas Programme - Rs. 71.25 crore, (iv) Irrigation and Flood Control - Rs. 58.21 crore, (v) Energy - Rs. 69.11 crore, (vi) Industries and Minerals - Rs. 17,75 crore, (vii) Transport - Rs. 91.72 crore, (viii) Communications - Rs. 5.40 crore, (ix) Science, Technology & Environment - Rs. 2.04 crore, (x) General Economic Services - Rs. 162.68 crore, (xi) Social Services - Rs. 442.37 crore and (xii) General Services - Rs. 222.01 crore.

Chief Minister hlui ngaihdan?
Chief minister hlui, chief minister a nih laia finance chang thin, Zoramthanga chuan Mizoram budget chu thil pangngai reng ang a nih thu sawiin, “Nikum ang kha a ni rih mai a,” tiin Zozam Weekly a hrilh.

A ngaih pawimawh thil sawiin, “Kan kal dan system a dik lo a ni,” a ti a, “Vote on account-in budget kha ‘pass’ mai engvangin nge a nih loh le? Plan sixe hriat loh rau rau chunga budget pum pui pharh tum tlat kha ka hrethiam thei lo, a dik lo,” a ti.

Chief inister hlui chuan, “Vote on account-a an tih mai loh chhan hi session neih leh an peih loh vang mai niin ka hria. Thil rem lo leh fuh lo chung chungin normal budget angin an pass a, finance minister tan chuan thil zahthlak a ni,” a ti.

“Zirtawpni-ah budget pharh a ni a, a tuk Inrinni-ah finance changtu, chief minister ber Delhi-ah plan size chungchang meeting nei turin a kal daih bawk a, khatiang kha thil thiang lo a ni, budget sawihona neih laia CM- finance changtu a awm lo kha thil thiang lo a ni. A tel lova General Discussion neih kha a rem lo hrim hrim,” a ti bawk.

“India ram hi a zau a, state hrang hrang leh UT nen kan plan size siam vek nan hian thla hnih chhung vel tal hun a ngai thin. Plan size discussion pawh sawnsak an dil thei alawm, kei ngei pawh finance minister ka nih lai pawhin kan plan size sawi hun tum tam tak kan sawn tir alawm. ‘Min sawn sak mai rawh u’ kan ti a, min sawnsak mai thin,” a ti.

“Tunah pawh sawn dil mai se a tha tur a nia. Budget an pharh te te-a Delhi-ah finance minister ber a kal daih a,” tia sawiin, “Kei chuan session pumpelh duh hrim hrim vang emaw peih loh vangah emaw ka ngai,” a ti.

Chief minister hlui chuan, “Kan fate pasal nei tur ni ta se, a manah Rs 400 emaw 500 kan chhiar ang tih laia a manpui tifel hmasa lova a man tang tifel phawt ang kan ni,” a ti. “Tih dan phungah chuan manpui siam fel a nih hnuah man tang chu siam fel leh chauh tur a ni ngai.Plan kan neih zat hre lovin an rin sem mai mai a ni,” a ti bawk.

“Tunah pawh kan plan size chu 250 crore-in a puang a. House-a pass a nih hma chuan hman theih a ni lo bur a. Supplementary Demand siam leh a ngai ang a, plan size hre lova department tina pawisa lo sem ngawt kha a felhlel hrim hrim,” a ti.

Plan sum punna 250 crore hmanna tur chu an pass mai a rin loh thu sawiin, “Ka rin dan mai mai chuan October thla velah session an ko ang a, chutah chuan an pass chauh ang. Chutih hunah chuan fourth quarter kan luh a hnai tawh ang a, pawisa hman mamawhna tam takah kan hmang hman dawn lo a ni” a ti.

Vote on account a budget n passed loh chhan chu, “Pakhatanaah an ngam lo, pahnihnaah an hriatloh hrim hrim vang leh an peihloh hrim hrim vang a niang” tia sawiin, “Khimi pathum zinga a khawi emaw ber vag khi chu a ni ang” a ti zui.

Economic Survey a thil pawimawh zual te
n Kum 2010 chhungin Mizoram population chuan 11,26,067 a thlen rin a ni a, chenna in awm zat pawh 249092 a nih rin a ni.

n Kum 2009-10 inkar chhunga Economy thanna chu 7% a nih rin a ni a, kum 2009-10-ah chuan 7.2%-ah a kai chhoh rin a ni.

n Kum 2009-10-a Mizoram per capita income chu Rs 32,634 ni tura beisei a ni a, India ram pum per capita erawh Rs 43,749 ni tura ngaih a ni.

nMizoram Economy innghahna chu tertiary/service sector a la ni reng. Service sector hian 67% lai thawhin Industrial sector chuan 19% vel thawh vein Agriculture leh Allied sector te chuan 14% chauh GSDP-ah an thawh ve a ni.

n Kum 2001 -a Economic Classification of wrokers neihah khan 60.6% lai te chu Agriculture eizawnna atana hmang an ni a, kum tina loneih chu an eizawn dan ber a ni. Kum 2000-01 a Agricultural Census-ah loneihna atan 93,298 hectares hman a nih laiin kum 2005-06-ah chuan 1,16,645 hectares laia zau hman a ni tawh. Kum 2009-09-a loneihna atana hman hmun zau zawng chu 1,26,716 hectares a ni a, heta 32% lai hi Jhum cultivation atana hman nia chhut a ni.

n Horticulture crops chinna atan 1.099 lakhs ha hman a ni a, Mizoram-ah hian Horticulture thlai chin theihna 6.30 lakhs ha awm nia ngaih a ni a, tuna hman tangkai chin hi chu 17% chauh a ni. Sapthei, balhla, setthlum, balhla, lakhuihtheih leh grape te chu Mizorama chin deuh ber a ni a, vegetable, state pawna thawnchhuah tam ber erawh iskut a ni. Mahse, Mizoram sorkar chuan horticulture thlai zingah Anthurium leh Nauban hi-tech greenhouse hmanga thar chu duhsakna a pe san ber thung a. Kum 2008-09 chhung khan Anthurium hi 75 lakhs vel thawn chhuah nia sawi a ni.

n Sangha dehchhuah lamah kan la intodelh lo hle bawk a. Mizoram in Sangha a thar chhuah chu 3750 MT nia chhut a ni a, chu chu intodelh theihna atana mamawh 11kg per capita a nih laiin 3.70kg per capita chauh thar chhuah a ni a, mamawh belh zat ang chu 7.30kg per capita ni. Mizoram in intodelh khawpa a mamawh zat chu 13,000 MT a ni a, kum 2014-15 a intodelh hman tura beisei a ni a. Mahse, chumi atan chuan sangha dil 4700 ha tal siam belh mamawh a ni dawn a a. Mizoram-ah hian sangha khawi theihna 24000 ha awmah 12% chiah la hman tangkai nia chhut a ni bawk.

n Kum 2007-a livestock census neihah 3.17 lakhs awma chhut a ni a, kum 2003 aiin 14%-in a pung a ni. Vawk vulh an thahnem ber a, 2.67 lakhs vel awm chhut niin, 73.35% an hauh pha a, Bawng vulhtu erawh 0.35 lakhs vel nia chhut an ni. Mizorama bawnghnute per capita zawnga chhut chu 52gms a ni a, Indian Council of Medical Research recommendation-ah chuan mihringin ni tin 240gms bawnghnute a mamawh tih a ni.

n Kum 2008-09 a artui dehchhuah zat chu 411 lakhs nia chhut a ni a, chu’ng zinga 236 lakhsa chu Desi a ni a, 175 lakhs erawh improved variety hmang a ni. Nikum aiin kuminah artui dehchhuah hi 2.24%-a pung tura ngaih a ni. Kum 2008-09 chhunga artui ei zat chu 46 nia chhut theih a nih laiin nutritional expert te chuan mihringin kum khat chhungin artui 180 lai ei a mamawh niin an chhut.

n Kum 2008-09- a bawng, lawi, sial, kel leh vawk sa dehchhuah zat chu 12,480 tonnes nia chhut a ni a, heng zinga 7894.16 tonnes chu vawksa niin, 2201.92 chu bawngsa nia chhut a ni. Arsa pawh 2236 tonnes tharchhuah nia chhut a ni bawk.

n State Forest Report 2009-a a lan dan chuan forest-in a huam chin chu 19,240 sq.km niin an chhut a, chu chu state geogrophical area atanga chhutin 91.27% laia zau a ni. Mizoram hian ngaw tia sawi theih 134 sq.km a la nei a, ngaw ve tho 6251 sq.km leh ngaw lo 12,855 sq km a nei bawk. Mizoram in forest area 16,717 a nei a, chung zinga 47.31% chu reserv forest a ni. Forest venhim 21.34% a awm a, unclassified forest 31.35% a awm bawk.

n Mizoram-in power project hrang hrang a neih atanga kawlphetha a dehchhuah theih zat chu 40.77 MW a ni a, Gross Generation chu 10.93 MU a ni. Peak hour-a (power mamawh san lai ber) kawlphetha mamawh zat chu 90MW a ni. Mizoram hian Central power project 8 atangin share 70.56 MW a nei. Tun dinhmunah chuanMizoram-in kawlphetha a mamawh zawng zawng atanga 3% chauh hi Mizoram dehchhuah a a awm ve a, a dang 97% hi central sector projects atanga kan lakkhawm a ni ber.

n Kum 2008-09 kum tawp lam thlenga PWD hnuaia kawngpui kan neih chu 5783.31 Kms a ni a. National Highway, Border Roads Organization-in an enkawl thui zawng chu 558.00 Kms a ni a, PWD-in 328.00 Kms a enkawl ve bawk a, Mizoram-ah bridges 107 a awm a. PMGSY road construction hnuaiah khua 81 tlawh pawh tawh a ni a, khaw 83 chu tlawh pawh mai theih tura ngaih a ni bawk a. PMGSY hnuaia kawngpui sial thui zawng hi 1,186 Km a ni.

n Kum 2008-09 chhunga Mizoram a motor awm zat chu, sorkar leh private tiam vekin 69,130 a ni. Motor hi a pung thr thur a ni hawt a, motor punna hi kum kal ta nena khaikhinin 10.99% lai a ni a, kum khat chunga Motor nei thar 7596 lai an awm. MST Bus service lai 53 a awm bawk.

n BSNL, Airtel, Reliance, Aircel, Tata Indicom leh Vodafone ten Mizoram-ah cellular mobile phone an provide a. January 2010 thlenga Mizorama Cellular Phone nei zat chu 561,917 lai a ni a, nikum December thla khan mobile connection nei 517,724 an awm ni.

n February 2010 thleng khan Mizoram-ah financial institution branch hrang hrang 109 lai a awm. Commercial bank 38 a awm a, Rurual Bank branches 60 leh Co-operative Bank branch 11 a awm bawk. Heng Bank tena loans and advances an pek chhuah zat chu Rs 14009.55 lai a ni.

n Mizoram pumah fair price shop 1233 a awm a, chu’ng zinga 829 chu thingtlanga awm a ni a, 404 erawh khawpuia awm a ni. December 2009 thleng khan Mioramah ration card nei mi 2,47,062 an awm.

n Water supply pek lohna thingtlang khua 154 lai Mizoram-ah a la awm a. Town-a chhiar 13 lai water supply nei lo an la awm bawk.

n Mizoram-ah school 3432 a awm. Teacher pupil ratio chu Primary (1:17), Middle School (1:8), High School (1:11), Higher Secondary School (1:13) te a ni. School 3432 a 54% lai chu sorkar enkawl school a ni. Govet. Colleges 20 a awm a, Deficit colleges 2 leh law Colleges 1 a awm bawk a, Teacher’s training College 2 a awm bawk a. Kum 2008-09 chhunga Arts, Science, Commerce leh Law college student zat chu 6454 a ni a, chung zinga 2970 chu hmeichhia anni.

n Mizoram sorkar hnuaiah Hospital 10, CHCs 12, PHCs 57 leh Sub Centers 370 a awm a. Doctor awm zat hi 2913 nia chhut a ni a, Anganwadi Centers 1,692 awm bawkin naupang inziaklut zat chu 123,931 lai a ni bawk.

n Hna nei lo Employment Exchange-a inziaklut zat chu 65846 an ni.

n Sales Tax hman a nih lai khan firm 600 an inziak lut a. VAT hman a nih hnuah erawh 3600 an ni ta thung. Kum 2008-09 chhung khan VAT hmangin 7,757.46 lakhs lakluh a ni a, 2009-10 February thleng khan Rs 7,282.62 lakhs an lalut tawh bawk.

n State chhiah lak lamah pawisa a pung. Kum 2006-07-a a pum puia a punna chu 22.76% a ni a, 2007-08-ah 14.69% niin, 2008-09-ah 22.90% a ni a, 2009-10-ah pawh 20.60% beisei a ni. TFC-in growth rate punna a beisei zat 12% aiin a sang fe zawk a ni.

n Gross Fiscal Deficit pawh Rs 102.59 crore chauh a ni tawh a, chu chu GSDP atanga chhut phei chuan 2.34% chauh a ni. 2008-09 khan GSDP atanga GFD pawh 3% chauh a ni.

n State leiba erawh a la sang hle reng a, 2008-09-a leiba tlingkhawm chu Rs 3259.82 crore a ni. GSDP atanga percentagea lakin leiba hi 2008-09-ah 85.58% lai a ni a, mahse, hei hi 78.95%-a tihhniam a nih theih beisei a ni. State-in leiba a ngah thin chhan hi hun lo la kal tur thlir chunga capital asset siamna tur atana loan lak vang a ni.

n NLCPR hnuaiah project 55lai Rs 231.14 crores senna chu zawhfel a ni tawh. NLCPR project 33 kal mek Rs 395.96 crores senna a awm.

n 11th plan period chhung khan Mizoram sorkar in schems/project 101 lai Rs 352.03 crores senna tur NEC-ah a thehlut a, Chung zinga Scheme 12, RS 4369.83 lakhs senna tur chu phalsak kan ni a. Tun dinhmunah Mizoram chuan NEC scheme 33 a kal pui mek.


n MLA Local Area Development Scheme chu 2010-11-ah pawh chhunzawm tum a ni a, heta tan hian Rs 1000 lakhs dah niin, bial tinin MLALADS atan hian 25 lakhs an nei dawn a ni.

n Thirteenth Finance Commission-in Mizoram tana kum 5 chhunga pawisa hman tur min pek chu Rs 8805.30 crore a ni a, Twelfth Finance Commsiion-ah khan Rs 4660.91 crore pek kan ni a, tihian a punna chu 88.92% a ni.

n Lunglei High Power Committe tihchangtlunna tur leh hmalakna atan 6 crore pek an ni.

n Gross State Domestic Product factor cost, constant price-a (1999-200) chhutin 2009-10-ah Rs 2,80,891 ni tura ngaih a ni. Economy thanna tur chu 7% ni tura chhut a ni bawk.

n Tertiary/Service sector-in Mizoram GDP-ah an thawhhlawk ber a, 67% lai an thawh.

n Agriculture &Allied sector-in GDP-a an thawh chu 13.78% chauh a ni. Economic Survey report-a tarlan dan chuan mautam avanga tawrhna chhunzawm zel vang nia sawi a ni.

n Industry Sector-in 19% an thawh a, nikum aia an thawh tamna/punna chu 1.58% chauh a ni.
District Domestic product-ah Aizawl district a sang filawr hle a, Serchhip District a hniam ber.
Mahse, GDDP sector contribution-ah thung chuan Serchhip District-in 37.32% lai thawhin Aizawl chuan 10.26% chauh a thawh thung. Serchhip District hi district dang zawng aiin a sang a ni.

n Industry sector-ah pawh Aizawl-in a thawh hlawk ber a, Serchhip District a hniam ber. Mahse, Mamit District chuan percentage-a lak chuan sang ber nihna a chang a, Kolasib a hniam ber a ni.

n Tertiary sector-ah pawh Aiawl District a sang filawr hle a, Serchhip District a hniam ber. Saiha District erawhin GDDP-ah he sector-ah hian a thawhhlawk ber a, Mamit District a hniam ber.

n District wise per capita income-ah Aizawl District a sang ber a, Mamit District-in pahnihna a hauh daih thung. Mahse, a lawmawm tehchiam chuang lo, Mamit District per capita san chhan hi Bru ho raltlan vanga population-a an hniam vang a ni.

Thirteenth Finance Commission
Kum 5 chhung atan Rs 8805.30 crore Thirteenth Finance Commission-in min pe a, heng sum hmanna turte hi sawilan vek a ni.
Twelfth Finance Commission khan Rs. 4660.91 min pe a, a punna hi 88.92% lai a ni.
Thirteenth Finance Commission hnuaia sum hmanna turte chu State-in Central tax laka share a neih Rs 3901.30 crore a ni a, kum 2010-11-ah Rs 548 crore, 2011-12-ah Rs 679 crore, 2012-13-ah Rs 759 crore, 2013-14 – Rs. 895 crore leh 2014-15 – ah Rs. 1055 crore te a ni.

Non-Plan Revenue Deficit Grant
Commission chuan Mizoram chu revenue deficits nei turah a ngai. Chumi khuhna atan chuan grants-in-aid Rs 3991,40 crore pek turin a ruahman.
Non-Plan Revenue Deficit Grant atan hian 2010-11 ah Rs. 715 crore, 2011-12 ah Rs. 684 crore, 2012-13 ah Rs. 908 crore, 2013-14 – Rs. 882 crore leh 2014-15 – Rs. 804 crore. te a ni.

Disaster Relief
Commission chuan State Disaster Relief Fund (SDRF) din turin a ti a, hei hei Calamity Relief Fund awmsa zulzui a ruahman tur a ni. Chubakah, commission chuan capacity building atan hrim hrim sum dahsak a nei bawk. SDRF atan hian Rs 47.50 crore min ruahmansak a, chuta Rs 5 crore chu capacity building atan bika hman tur a ni.

Elementary Education
Right of Education Act, 2009 tih hlawhtlinnan leh zirnain mi tin a thlen theihnan Elementary Education chu ngaih pawimawh a ni hle a, hemi atan hian Rs 5 crore lai dah a ni.

Improving Outcomes
Grnats thenkhat, Commission-in tih chak leh thuam that ngai nia hriat a nei :-
n improvement in Justice delivery : Dan leh hrai kenkawh chungchanga mumal zawk leh tha zawka kalpui a nih theih nan Commission chuan a pumpuiin Rs 12.96 crore min pe a. Chu thensawm leh niin : - i) Morning/Evening Courts atan Rs. 6.27 crore, Lok Adalat and Legal Aid atan Rs. 0.75 crore, Training of Judicial Officers atan Rs. 0.63 crore, Training of Public Prosecutors atan Rs. 0.38 crore, Heritage Court Buildings atan Rs. 1.13 crore, ADR Centres atan Rs. 2.72 crore leh Court Managers atan Rs. 1.09 crore. te a ni.

Incentive for issuing UID : Commission chuan mirethei zualte tana Unique Identification (UID) siam ni se a ti a. mi pakhat tan Rs 100 zel ni tura ruahman niin, hemi atan hian Rs 1.20 crore dah a ni.

District Innovation Fund : Mizorama district kan neihte tihchangtlunna tur atan Commission chuan Rs 8 crore a ruahman a, district tinin Rs 1 crore zelin an insem dawn a ni.

Improvement of Statistical Systems at State & District Level: Commission chuan data system tha tawk kan neih theihnan ruahmanna siam ni se a ti a, chumi atan chuan Rs 8 crore dah a ni.

Employee & Pension Data-base: Sorkar hnathawk leh pension te chhinchhiahna mumal leh tha zawk a awm theihnan Rs 5 crore dah a ni.

Environment related Grants : Tunlai khawvel sik leh sa inthlak mek chungchangah ecology a pawimawh em em a, chumi atan chuan environment siamthat kawnga hmalakna atan Commission chuan pawisa tam tham tak min pe. Forest atan Rs 171.20 crore leh Water Sector Management atan Rs 4 crore min pe bawk.

Maintenance of Roads & Bridges : Twelfth Finance Commission hmalakna chhunawmna chi khat a ni a, kalkawng leh lei siamna atan Thirteenth Finance Commission chuan 2011-12 atanga 2014-15 inkar chhunga hman turin Rs 89 crore min pe.

State Specific Needs project State Specific Needs project atan liau liau Rs 250 crore pek kan ni. A hmanna turte chu Sainik School dinnan Rs 50 crore Raj Bhavan saknan Rs 30 crore, Jail saknan Rs 30 crore, Autonomous District Council pathuma infrastructure dinnan Rs 25 crore, Khatla-a playground siamnan Rs 2 crore, Border Area-a Police Sataton saknan Rs 31 Crore, Primary Health Care leh Health Sub-Centers saknan Rs 30 crore, Fire& Emergency Services atan Rs 20 crore Civil Secretariat sak belhnan Rs 20 crore
Thil hlui vawnthatna (Heritage Conservation) atan Rs 12 crore.

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1 comment:

  1. A bengvarthlak ka tih thu kan sawi leh hnuhnawh teh ang

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